We can find the association of holm oak forests in their typical composition in several areas of Veliki Brijun (the most beautiful one is eastwards of the White villa) and also in some parts of Mali Brijun.
Holm oak (holly oak) - Quercus Ilex
The origin of the name of species was used to denote the holm oak in Roman times. It is a Mediterranean evergreen plant found in areas from the southern coasts of Europe to northern Africa. The tree is up to 25 m high with a short trunk that can measure over 1m in diameter. Its crown is large, oval and dense. Bark on young trees is gray and smooth, whereas on old ones it is shallowly patterned into small squares. Leaves are simple, leathery and remain on the tree 2-3 years. Its flower is a small acorn, borne in long, hard and scaly cups that cover half of the acorn. Holm oak acorns have the highest energy value and are low in tannin, which makes them suitable for eating. Many ancient writers mentioned in their works the edible quality of acorns. One of them, Pliny, records that the acorn is the sweetest when baked in ashes. The famous Dubrovnik poet, Mavro Vetranović praised the holm oak acorn as tastier than chestnuts: "The flavor and beauty of the holm oak acorn far exceeds that of the chestnut."
Together with laurel, holm oak mostly covers the eastern part of Veli Brijun. Nowhere else along the coast of Croatia can such areas covered with holm oak and laurel be found, which is one of the specific features of Brijuni. Lower species that grow here are strawberry-tree and mock privet grow.